2. There is no tunnel effect
There is no nucleus in an atom; atom is a crystal where quadrupoles are located layer by layer, and valent dipoles are located on the surface of the crystal. Imposing and interaction of their local electric fields makes an electric field of an atom, which is generally electrically neutral. Therefore, barriers formed by Coulomb forces of a nucleus do not exist. β and α - atoms decay mechanisms are considered. Radioactive atom transformation with α-particles radiation is carried out without tunnel effect, such an effect does not exist.